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Unit 18. 比較 首頁 / 文法句型精華 / 單元式整理 / Unit 18. 比較

   
 
18.1 比較級:-er/more…than  (S1 比 S2 更…)
   
 
名詞片語
S1+ V1
more + 不可數單數/可數複數名詞 + than(~比~更多(86聯考)
fewer + 可數複數名詞 + than(~比~更少(88推甄,86聯考)
less (更多) + 不可數單數名詞 + than (~比~更少
+ S2
    例1. She's collected more/fewer CDs than her sister (has). (她收集的CD她姊姊/。)
例2. Each day, I drink more/less coffee than my boss (does). (我每天喝的咖啡老闆/。)
     
形容詞片語
S1+ V1 +

形容詞 -er/more + 形容詞 than (比 ~ 更 ~

less + 形容詞 + than (比 ~ 更不 ~
+ S2 (95學測,93指考/學測,88/86聯考)
    例:The weather is not hotter in the north than (it is) in the south. (北部的天氣不南部。)
     
副詞片語 S1+ V1more/less + 副詞 + than  + S2 …(比~/更不~)  (副詞修飾一般動詞)
    例:The robot walks more/less steadily than a man (does). (這機器人走路/不穩。)
    註:later (晚點/後來) vs  latter (後者) –89推甄;little (少) less (較少) least (最少/最不)—88推甄
   
   
18.2 同級比較句型: as……….. as    (S1 和 S2一樣的…)
   
 
名詞片語
S1+ V1 +
as + many (+可數複數名詞) + as ( ~ 和 ~ 一樣多)
as + much (+不可數單數名詞) + as (92學測,87推甄,85聯考)
+ S2
    例1. She's collected as many CDs as her sister (has). (她收集的CD她姊姊一樣多。)
例2. Each day, I drink as much coffee as my boss (does). (我每天喝的咖啡老闆一樣多。)
    * 可數單數名詞用法:S1+ V1 + as + 形容詞原級 + a(n) +可數單數名詞 + as + S2 … 
      例:The screenplay is as interesting a story as the actual event. (這劇本真實故事一樣有趣。)
    註:as many/much as + 數量 = up to + 數量 (有 ~ 之多/多達 ~ )
  例:As many as (=Up to) 10 passengers were injured in the accident. (多達10位旅客在事故中受傷。)
     
形容詞片語 S1+ V1 + as + 形容詞原級 + as + S2 … (一樣的 ~) (85推甄)
    例:The weather is not as/so hot in the north as (it is) in the south. (北部天氣不像南部那麼。)
     
副詞片語 S1+ V1 + as + 副詞原級 + as + S2 … (一樣的 ~)  (副詞修飾一般動詞)
    例:The robot walks as steadily as a man (does). (這機器人走路一樣地穩。)
     
   
下載 Unit 18.1—18.2 同步演練
   
   
18.3 常考之片語,及比較級/最高級「修飾語」
   
 
1. nothing more than (=nothing/all but) 只是(91學測);nothing less than儼然是~
  例:It's nothing more than a joke(只是個笑話)/nothing less than a trick. (儼然是惡作劇)
   
2. 修飾比較級--
(1) 更~些:any (90學測), even (95/94指考,86聯考), still
(2)  ~ 的多:much/a lot/(by) far/a great(good) deal/considerably (90學測)
(3) 有點 ~:slightly/a bit/a little/somewhat。
  例1. Are you feeling any better? (你感覺更好些了嗎?)
例2. The rich ecology brings even more surprises for visitors. (豐富生態為觀光客帶來更多驚喜。)
例3. Chinese is considerably more difficult to learn than English. ( 中文比英文難學的多。)
   
3. 修飾最高級:by far(84推甄), the very + 最高級。
  例:This model is by far the newest design.  (此款絕對是最新穎的設計。)
   
4. (a) few/many+more+可數N (84聯考)(a) little/much+more+不可數N
  例:We have a few more minutes before the meeting starts. (會議開始前,我們還有幾分鐘多時間。)
   
   
18.4 最高級句型 (以下1—2名詞片語須用the;3. 形容詞片語不用the/副詞片語常省略the)
   
 
1. the + 最高級 + of + the群體/in + 場所 ( ~ 之中/在 ~ 裡,最 ~ )
  例:Jupiter is the biggest of all the planets. (土星是行星中最大的。)
  = Of all the planets, Jupiter is the biggest.
例:This is the most popular hotel in this town. (這是城裡最有人氣的旅社。)
   
2.
~ be
(現在式)
(過去簡單式) 
+ the + 最高級…
that ~ have/has/ ever + V-p.p. …  (現在完成式)
that ~ ever + V-p.t./had ever V-p.p. …  (過去式/完成
              (所曾經 ~ 之中,最 ~ )
  例1. This is the strangest fish that I have ever seen. (至目前,我所見過的魚當中,最奇怪的。)
例2. It was the funniest joke that I (had) ever heard. (當時,我所聽過的笑話當中,那是最有趣的。)
   
3.
形容詞/副詞片語:
形容詞/副詞-est (最 ~)
most(最~)/least(最不~)+ 形容詞/副詞  (most + 副詞--88推甄)
  例1. Our boss is most generous (形容詞) when we get a big order. (獲大訂單時,老闆最慷慨。)
例2. Jenny speaks English (the) most/least fluently (副詞). (Jenny英文說得最/最不流利。)
   
   
18.5 the + last + N  (= the least likely)  最不可能的 ~ (92指考)
   
  例:John is the last person I would marry. (John是我最不可能結婚的對象。)
   
   
18.6 ~  (in the same way)  as  ~  (如同 ~;像 ~ 一樣) (86聯考,84推甄)
   
 
例:Do as you would be done by. (善待別人,如同你想被對待的一樣 → 己所欲,施於人。)
註:As (he was) a child, he took interest in movies. (小時候,他對電影感興趣。)(as-當~時候—94學測)
   
下載 Unit 18.3—18.6 同步演練
   
   
18.7 倍數
   
 
倍數的三種表達法: (下列用法皆是置於S + V 之後)
(1) 比較級~ 倍數 + adj/adv比較級 + than
(2) 同級比較~ 倍數 + as + adj/adv原級 + as …  (90學測)
(3)  ~ 倍數 + NP
  (1) 與 (2) 的 adj 需轉換成 (3) NP,
  例 old → age, heavy → weight; big → size; high →height; much → amount/sum/what-子句…等。
 
例1. He is almost three times heavier than his girlfriend. (他比她女朋友重三倍。)
= He weighs almost three times as much as his girlfriend.
= He is almost three times his girlfriend's weight.
例2. She earns ten times more than he used to. (她的收入比以前多十倍。)
= She earns ten times as much as he used to.
= She earns ten times what he used to.
 
註: by + 倍數。例:The sales have increased by five times this year.
 
twice 及 half 及 分數 與同級比較as … as連用居多。
註:twice 亦可接名詞。
 
例1. I work twice as hard as you.
例2. A morbidly obese person may weigh about twice as much as a slim person.
例3. I paid half as much for the meal as they did.
例4. We have a third as many students in our class as we had last term.
 
註: 其他含比較數字之類似結構。
例1. He is ten years older/younger than us. (=He is older than us by ten years.)
  = He is ten years our senior/junior. (=He is my junior/senior by ten years.)
  (He is junior/senior to me by ten years./He is ten years junior/senior to me. → 口語用)
例2. The grain output is 8 percent higher this month than that of last month.
   
 
下載 Unit 18.7 同步演練
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